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Angiography

  • A  coronary catheterization  (coronarography) is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter. It is performed for both diagnostic and interventional (treatment) purposes.

  • The patient being examined or treated is usually awake during catheterization, ideally with only local anaesthesia such as lidocaine .Coronary catheterization is performed in a catheterization lab, usually located within a hospital , in a sterile environment provided special equipment (angiographer) that uses X-rays. The patient is lying on the special bed and covered with a sterile field, which leaves uncovered just the right (or left) inguinal area or the radial area, where the local anesthesia is performed. Thereafter a cannula is introduced in the femoral/radial artery, into which catheters are introduced (specific long thread-like devices), which are pushed  toward the coronaries, inside which they the contrast substance is injected, in order to evidence the coronaries.

    Armenia Medical Center: Angiography


  • There are 3 types of treatment:

  • medical treatment

  • coronary angioplasty (an interventional procedure for widening of a coronary artery in the case where it is blocked or narrowed by an atheroma plaque. This intervention may be performer by balloon dilation or by stent placement)

  • surgical intervention for coronary bypass

    -   The first revolution in the field of revascularization was Balloon percutaneous angioplasty (PTCA = Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty) .First patient who underwent the first transluminal coronary angioplasty on September 16, 1977  by Andreas Roland Grüntzig was a German cardiologist who first developed successful balloon angioplasty for expanding lumens of narrowed arteries.

    The second revolution in interventional cardiology was bare metal stents (BMS).First-in-Man stent deployed in mid RCA by Dr. Eduardo Sousa in St. Paulo,Brazil.1988

    - The third revolution in interventional cardiology was drug eluting stents(DES).In 2001, drug-eluting stents (DES) were introduced as a strategy to minimize restenosis and requirement for reintervention . FDA Approved 2003

    The fourth revolution in interventional cardiology was bioabsorbable vascular scaffold(BVS).The advantages of bioabsorbable vascular scaffold (BVS)stents

    A reduction in adverse events such as ST.

    The removal, through bioabsorption, of the rigid caging of the stented vessel.

    Armenia Medical Center: Angiography


    A reduction in bleeding complications.

    An improvement in future treatment options.

    Allowing the use of noninvasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) angiography or magnetic resonance imaging for follow-up.

    Reservoir for the local delivery of drugs and genes.

    Elimination of the concern that some patients have at the thought of having an implant in their bodies for the rest of their lives.